Developing an Approach to Share Monitoring Data to Advance Coordinated Disease Management Efforts Among Grape Growers

Our objective is to provide technical support for data sharing among members of regional groups to advance coordinated disease management efforts. In this first of a proposed 2-year project, we conducted the following activities in support of that objective: (1) We investigated potential data sharing platforms and identified one that embodied many of the factors under consideration, including low cost, a simple user interface and robust sharing potential. (2) We worked with a grower group to implement this platform to share regional pest incidence data. (3) We collected intermittent and formal feedback on the functionality of the data-sharing platform. This feedback will be used to augment the data sharing protocol in year 2. (4) We processed historical data collected by a grower group and conducted a preliminary visualization and analysis to facilitate the translation of data into meaningful and actionable results. We intend to continue this analysis in the 2nd project year. (5) We engaged members of the regional groups to provide technical support for data-sharing platforms, share results of data animation and visualization, and are building potential for this approach to become self-sustaining.

Extension and Outreach through UC Davis Viticulture and Enology On the Road Events

At the end of the 2016-2017 funding cycle, we will have produced the four On-the-road educational events proposed in the AVF Extension and Outreach grant. In addition, we completed all proposed events for the 2015-2016 funding cycle, before the end of the grant period (as proposed), described in last year’s annual report.

The first On-the-road event in the current (2016-2017) grant cycle took place in Madera. Karen Block worked with Lindsay Jordan, Area Viticulture Advisor for Madera, Merced, and Mariposa counties, to determine topics of regional interest and invited individuals working in those areas to speak at this educational event. Turnout was not as high as expected, due to American Vineyard Magazine’s Fruit and Nut Expo occurring nearby in Fresno. We were not aware of this until four weeks before the event, and had other circumstances with scheduled speakers, so we were unable to reschedule. Those who did attend found it quite informative. Lindsay Jordan spoke about Alternative Winegrape Varieties for a Warm Climate, Anita Oberholster spoke about the Impact of Winery Wastewater Irrigation on Soil, Grape Nutrition, and Grape and Wine Quality, Ben Montpetit gave a summary of his background and the types of research he will pursue, Matt Fidelibus spoke about, “Shade from trellised vines as a weed suppressive cropping system,” David Block talked about cap management in red wine fermentations, and Kaan Kurtural spoke about the advantages of vineyard mechanization.

We are planning to complete three more On the road events before the end of the current funding cycle. The first event is scheduled to take place in Acampo, at the Constellation Woodbridge Winery, on February 28, 2017, the second is scheduled for March 24, 2017, in Napa County, at the Yountville Community Center, and the last is scheduled in Paso Robles at J. Lohr Vineyards and Wines, between March 20 and April 15, 2017. Karen Block has been working with Paul Verdegaal and Stephanie Bolton for the Lodi event; Monica Cooper, Michelle Novi, and Sonya DeLuca for the event in Napa; and Mark Battany and folks at J. Lohr for the Paso Robles event. The event in Lodi is focused on viruses and diseases and the speakers will be John Roncoroni, Maher Al Rwahnih, Kari Arnold, Monica Cooper, Neil McRoberts, and Anita Oberholster. For the Napa County event, the confirmed speakers are Kerri Steenwerth, Kaan Kurtural, Ben Montpetit, Andrew Waterhouse, Andrew Walker, and Anita Oberholster. Mark Battany and Karen Block are still working on dates and speakers for the Paso Robles On the road event.

Extension and Outreach Through UC Davis Viticulture and Enology On-The-Road Events

At the end of the 2014-2015 funding cycle we will have produced five On-the-road educational events. In addition, we hosted several industry-related events on the UC Davis campus. The first On-the-road educational event in this grant cycle took place in Lodi in April 2014. Like the previous Lodi event, it was held at the Woodbridge Winery in their barrel room. The general theme was water issues. The event was well attended, with approximately 60 attendees. The next On-the-road event will be in the Foothills. To determine what topics to present, we conducted a survey of growers and vintners in the region, consulted with the local farm advisor (Lynn Wunderlich) and visited potential host wineries. As a result of the background work, we are presenting an On-the-road event that will take place at Terra D’Oro Winery (Plymouth, CA) on Feb 27, 2015, with David Mills, Anita Oberholster, David Block, Linda Bisson and Lynn Wunderlich confirmed to speak. We have two more On-the-road events scheduled before the end of the funding cycle. One event is scheduled to take place at the Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Parlier on March 31, 2015, and the other is scheduled for April 1, 2015, at the University of California Cooperative Extension Office in Salinas. The event in Parlier will mainly address enology issues (as discussed during our visit to the area in early November 2014). The event in Salinas will cover mainly viticulture topics and enology related to viticulture. For the Parlier event we have confirmed David Block, Anita Oberholster, Dario Cantu and Andy Waterhouse and for the Salinas event, we have David Block, Anita Oberholster, Larry Bettiga and Dario Cantu. In addition, we occasionally help the Napa Valley Vintners with their educational events and have presentations by Sue Ebeler, Linda Bisson, and Anita Oberholster scheduled for February 4, 2015, at the Napa Marriott. We are also in the process of scheduling an educational event in Sonoma later in April 2015, as part of the next grant cycle. Other extension efforts building from AVF support of the IRM include: hosting and setting up seminars for the International Cabernet Symposium, the California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance, National Grape and Wine Initiative, and co-chairing Recent Advances in Viticulture and Enology with Anita Oberholster. In November 2014, Anita Oberholster and Karen Block organized a tasting of wines irrigated with well versus recycled winery water for the Napa Valley Grapegrowers, as part of their Rootstock event. In addition, each year, Karen Block organizes the UC Davis Viticulture and Enology Unified Reception, which brings together 150-200 alumni, faculty, friends and students on Wednesday evening of the Unified Wine and Grape Symposium in Sacramento.

Developing and Evaluating Social Networking Tools for Viticulture

We sought to 1) determine how familiar our academic and industry colleagues were with blogs, Facebook, and Twitter, and provide training for them if necessary, 2) extend more viticultureinformation through social networking tools, and 3) develop some metrics to learn how often thetools were used, and by whom. Surveys distributed separately to core clientele, viticulture specialists and advisors in California, and out­of­state extension faculty, suggested that many academic and industry colleagues were potentially interested in using social networking tools to extend and receive viticulture information, but they needed training to learn how to use them, particularly in a professional context.

Therefore we provided social media training at several meetings throughout the state. Perhaps due in part to our training efforts, our sites have steadily attracted more users over time; the number ofpeople who ‘like’ our Facebook page has increased from 93 people in January 2010 to 249 people in January 2011, and our followers on Twitter have increased from 182 last January to 357 this January.  Further, our blog was accessed nearly 50,000 times in  2010 in December 2010 alone, our Facebook page was accessed more than 11,000 times.

We dramatically increased the content provided in 2010. For example, we sent 87  “tweets” in 2009 versus 272 tweets in 2010.  In 2010 we also began to use special software that allowed us to integrate, to some extent, our social media tools.  This provided content at varying levels of detail and may havehelped us expand our reach. We intend to further extend our reach by developing other types of content including video and pictures which can be shared on specialized social sites such as YouTube, and Flickr,respectively. Monitoring social media is complex, but we’ve learned that our sites are regularly accessed by menand women of a wideage range, from at least 20 different countries.The social aspect of these sites, especially Twitter, has facilitated sharing of information beyond our immediate users, thereby expanding their impact.

Developing and Evaluating Social Networking Tools for Viticulture

We sought to 1) determine how familiar our academic and industry colleagues were with blogs, Facebook, and Twitter, and provide training for them if necessary, 2) extend more viticulture information through social networking tools, and 3) develop some metrics to learn how often the tools were used, and by whom. Surveys distributed separately to core clientele, viticulture specialists and advisors in California, and out-of-state extension faculty, suggested that many academic and industry colleagues were potentially interested in using social networking tools to extend and receive viticulture information, but they needed training to learn how to use them, particularly in a professional context. Therefore we provided social media training at several meetings throughout the state. Perhaps due in part to our training efforts, our sites have steadily attracted more users over time; the number of people who ?like? our Facebook page has increased from 93 people in January 2010 to 249 people in January 2011, and our followers on Twitter have increased from 182 last January to 357 this January. Further, our blog was accessed nearly 50,000 times in 2010 and, in December 2010 alone, our Facebook page was accessed more than 11,000 times. We dramatically increased the content provided in 2010. For example, we sent 87 ?tweets? in 2009 versus 272 tweets in 2010. In 2010 we also began to use special software that allowed us to integrate, to some extent, our social media tools. This provided content at varying levels of detail and may have helped us expand our reach. We intend to further extend our reach by developing other types of content including video and pictures which can be shared on specialized social sites such as YouTube, and Flickr, respectively. Monitoring social media is complex, but we?ve learned that our sites are regularly accessed by men and women of a wide age range, from at least 20 different countries. The social aspect of these sites, especially Twitter, has facilitated sharing of information beyond our immediate users, thereby expanding their impact.

Enhancements to the National Grape Registry (NGR) Website

In 2010, FPS staff managed a solid start in this multi-year project to photograph significant representative plant parts (leaves, shoot tips and clusters) of the grapevine cultivars and clones on the National Grape Registry website. Photographic images of at least one plant part (leaves or shoot tips) were taken of 191 of the 900+ NGR cultivars. Photographs were taken of clusters and berries from 97 of the 1200 clones on the NGR site. Post-production processing of the 2010 images is still in progress, although preliminary images for some of the cultivars and clones has been posted on the NGR for viewing by the OWB and other industry members who are interested in this project. The next significant step is for Dr. Andy Walker to review the 2010 images for accuracy in depiction of cultivars and clones. The images that do not pass scrutiny will be rescheduled for new photographs should the project be granted funding in the 2011-2012 cycle. The portion of the project related to description of the grape clones that are in the pipeline at Foundation Plant Services is complete. The pipeline plant material includes new cultivars and clones that are still in the testing and disease treatment phase at FPS. Clonal profiles for 371 of these FPS selections (along with many associated varietal profiles) are now included on the NGR website under the tab entitled ?Vines in Progress?. These profiles inform the grape industry of cultivars and clones that will soon be released to increase the diversity of grapevine material available in the United States.

Development of an Enology Outreach Program

There has been a chronic underinvestment in extension and outreach for the wine industry. The specific goal of this proposal is the development of a comprehensive program for extension and outreach in enology. This comprehensive program includes an interactive web site that will serve both researchers in enology and winery personnel. With the plethora of information sources currently available on the internet, searching effectively and efficiently for pertinent and accurate information has become challenging. This site will function as a means to link researchers across the United States and internationally that have an active program or interest in enology. The aim of the site is to share information within the research and production communities, facilitate collaboration, eliminate unnecessary redundancy, and foster communication on issues of regional, national or global importance. The site was renamed ‘EnologyAccess’ (http://enologyaccess.org/) and launched under this name with an inaugural webinar in August of 2008. In this past year we developed the interactive tools and social networking for the site (ea2) which will be launched in the next couple of months. We are actively migrating content to this site and providing links to extension specialist and researcher websites across the nation and the world. For this site to be more useful we will need to develop a stream of income that will support the site curation. This year we launched one of the signature programs of our new extension center, Wine Flavor 101. The first courses in this series were sold out and we received a response rate on the course questionnaire of over 70{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23}. The surveys provided a wealth of ideas and constructive criticism for the programs which will assure their continued success. As we develop solid income streams we will be able to hire content curators and add more and more content to the site and offer an expanded line of programs. Progress on meeting our goals is slow but steady.

Development of an Enology Outreach Program

There has been a chronic underinvestment in extension and outreach for the wine
industry. The specific goal of this proposal is the development of a comprehensive web
site that will serve both researchers in enology and winery personnel. With the plethora
of information sources currently available on the internet, searching effectively and
efficiently for pertinent and accurate information has become challenging. This site will
function as a means to link researchers across the United States and internationally that
have an active program or interest in enology. The aim of the site is to share information
within the research and production communities, facilitate collaboration, eliminate
unnecessary redundancy, and foster communication on issues of regional, national or
global importance. In the current funding year an Implementation and Advisory
Committee for the Enology Extension Online web site was formed. The committee
consists of: Dr. James Harbertson (Washington State University), Dr. James Osborne
(Oregon State University), Dr. Brent Trela (Texas Tech University), Dr. Trevor Phister
(North Carolina State University) and Dr. Bruce Zoecklein (Virginia Tech). Dr. Bisson is
chairing the group and the committee is assisted by Kay Bogart. The Implementation and
Advisory Committee has designed the scope of the site, which is described in detail in the
request for continuing funding. In addition the group considered the best mechanisms for
creation and maintenance of the site. The site has been named ?Enology Extension
Online? and will be launched in April 2008.

The Potential Health Benefits of Phenolic Wine Constituents

Specific goals of the 1995-6 proposal were:

  1. Determine the phenolic composition of a “standard” California red wine for the purposes of health experimentation.
  2. Develop a method to measure the levels of phenolic compounds in ripe Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in California.
  3. Develop a method to analyze human blood plasma for many wine phenolics.

We have made significant progress towards these goals and expect to have them completed by summer’s end. Goals 2 and 3 are finished but goal 1 is incomplete to date. For Goal 1 we have completed the measurement of standard wine parameters, such as ethanol, acid and sugar levels, but have not completed the chromatographic analysis of all the phenolic constituents and this task will be complete by summer’s end. Towards Goal 2, we developed sampling methodology that reduced the very high variability previously observed in the analysis of phenolics in grape samples. In this procedure, the skins were extracted with a 1:1 methanol/water solvent for 24 hrs., while the seeds were extracted with a 1:1 acetone/water solvent mixture. These extracts showed, when analyzed for many individual compounds including catechin by HPLC, coefficients of variance of between 1.5{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23} and 16{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23} on triplicates. For Goal 3, we now have a procedure to analyze for the presence of multiple phenolic compounds in human plasma. This procedure involves dilution of plasma into acetonitrile, evaporation of the supernatant and re-solution before HPLC analysis. In addition to catechin, we can detect epicatechin and caffeic acid. The recovery of catechin is 88{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23}, epicatechin 82{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23} and caffeic acid 68{aed9a53339cdfc54d53cc0c4af03c96668ab007d9c364a7466e3349a91bf0a23}.